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Role of C-peptide in human physiology.
Diabetes OD > Diabetic Complications > Neural > Journal Article

(Journal Article): Role of C-peptide in human physiology.
Wahren J, Ekberg K, Johansson J, Henriksson M, Pramanik A, Johansson BL, Rigler R, Jornvall H (Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden., )
IN: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2000; 278(5):E759-E768
Impact Factor(s) of Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab: 4.431 (2004), 3.828 (2003), 3.324 (2001)

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ABSTRACT: The C-peptide of proinsulin is important for the biosynthesis of insulin but has for a long time been considered to be biologically inert. Data now indicate that C-peptide in the nanomolar concentration range binds specifically to cell surfaces, probably to a G protein-coupled surface receptor, with subsequent activation of Ca(2+)-dependent intracellular signaling pathways. The association rate constant, K(ass), for C-peptide binding to endothelial cells, renal tubular cells, and fibroblasts is approximately 3. 10(9) M(-1). The binding is stereospecific, and no cross-reaction is seen with insulin, proinsulin, insulin growth factors I and II, or neuropeptide Y. C-peptide stimulates Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activities. Data also indicate that C-peptide administration is accompanied by augmented blood flow in skeletal muscle and skin, diminished glomerular hyperfiltration, reduced urinary albumin excretion, and improved nerve function, all in patients with type 1 diabetes who lack C-peptide, but not in healthy subjects. The possibility exists that C-peptide replacement, together with insulin administration, may prevent the development or retard the progression of long-term complications in type 1 diabetes.



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